Suggested Activities Students evaluate the importance of various factors in determining the quality of life of people living in various regions of North America.
Understanding how people arrive at their choices is an area of cognitive psychology that has received attention. Theories have been generated to explain how people make decisions, and what types of factors influence decision making in the present and future.
In addition, heuristics have been researched to understand the decision making process. Several factors influence decision making.
Understanding the factors that influence decision making process is important to understanding what decisions are made. That is, the factors that influence the process may impact the outcomes. Many types of heuristics have been developed to explain the decision making process; essentially, individuals work to reduce the effort they need to expend in making decisions and heuristics offer individuals a general guide to follow, thereby reducing the effort they must disburse.
People make decisions about many things. They make political decisions; personal decisions, including medical choices, romantic decisions, and career decisions; and financial decisions, which may also include some of the other kinds of decisions and judgments.
Quite often, the decision making process is fairly specific to the decision being made. Some choices are simple and seem straight forward, while others are complex and require a multi-step approach to making the decisions.
The present paper will address decision making, in the context of types of decisions people make, factors that influence decision making, several heuristics commonly researched and utilized in the process of decision making. Further, the paper will explore what happens after the decision is made, as well as how present decisions impact future behavior and decision making.
Finally, summary comments will be offered, with implications for future research and practical application of teaching decision making skills in teens. Factors that Influence Decision Making There are several important factors that influence decision making.
Significant factors include past experiences, a variety of cognitive biases, an escalation of commitment and sunk outcomes, individual differences, including age and socioeconomic status, and a belief in personal relevance. These things all impact the decision making process and the decisions made.
Past experiences can impact future decision making. Juliusson, Karlsson, and Garling indicated past decisions influence the decisions people make in the future.
It stands to reason that when something positive results from a decision, people are more likely to decide in a similar way, given a similar situation. This is significant to the extent that future decisions made based on past experiences are not necessarily the best decisions.
In financial decision making, highly successful people do not make investment decisions based on past sunk outcomes, rather by examining choices with no regard for past experiences; this approach conflicts with what one may expect Juliusson et al. In addition to past experiences, there are several cognitive biases that influence decision making.
Cognitive biases include, but are not limited to: In decision making, cognitive biases influence people by causing them to over rely or lend more credence to expected observations and previous knowledge, while dismissing information or observations that are perceived as uncertain, without looking at the bigger picture.The effects of alcohol on health and well-being can manifest themselves as chronic disease, accidents and injuries, as well as short-term and long-term social consequences.
Both the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking determine whether there will be. Individual factors Human factors. People vary in many ways: physically, mentally, personality, knowledge and experience. Physical differences are the most obvious.
External factors, such as what we eat and drink, the medications we take, and the environment in which we sleep can also greatly affect the quantity and quality of our sleep. In general, all of these factors tend to increase the number of awakenings and limit the depth of sleep.
Explain factors that influence who should give significant news to an individual or key people Describe conflicts and legal or ethical issues that may arise in relation to death, dying or end of life care.
Analyse factors that contribute to the well-being of individuals Well-being may include aspects that are: • spiritual • emotional • cultural.
the factors that are believed to contribute to the occurrence of stress and/or a claim for psychological influence on their sense of well-being and identity (Barling, ; Feather, ). societal, cultural and individual factors. Asnoted by Kielhofner (), a person’s identity is .