You can help by adding to it. January Both western and oriental civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. Knowing the self is enlightenment.
Discuss how salience influences the selection of perceptual information. Explain the ways in which we organize perceptual information. Discuss the role of schemata in the interpretation of perceptual information.
Perception The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information. This process, which is shown in Figure 2. Although perception is a largely cognitive and psychological process, how we perceive the people and objects around us affects our communication.
We respond differently to an object or person that we perceive favorably than we do to something we find unfavorable. But how do we filter through the mass amounts of incoming information, organize it, and make meaning from what makes it through our perceptual filters and into our social realities?
Selecting Information We take in information through all five of our senses, but our perceptual field the world around us includes so many stimuli that it is impossible for our brains to process and make sense of it all.
So, as information comes in through our senses, various factors influence what actually continues on through the perception process. Fiske and Shelley E. Taylor, Social Cognition, 2nd ed. Selecting The first part of the perception process, in which we focus our attention on certain incoming sensory information.
Think about how, out of many other possible stimuli to pay attention to, you may hear a familiar voice in the hallway, see a pair of shoes you want to buy from across the mall, or smell something cooking for dinner when you get home from work.
We quickly cut through and push to the background all kinds of sights, smells, sounds, and other stimuli, but how do we decide what to select and what to leave out? Salience The degree to which something attracts our attention in a particular context.
The thing attracting our attention can be abstract, like a concept, or concrete, like an object. Or a bright flashlight shining in your face while camping at night is sure to be salient. The degree of salience depends on three features.
McGraw Hill, We tend to find salient things that are visually or aurally stimulating and things that meet our needs or interests.
Lastly, expectations affect what we find salient. Creatures ranging from fish to hummingbirds are attracted to things like silver spinners on fishing poles or red and yellow bird feeders. In short, stimuli can be attention-getting in a productive or distracting way. As communicators, we can use this knowledge to our benefit by minimizing distractions when we have something important to say.
As we will learn later in Chapter 12 "Public Speaking in Various Contexts"altering the rate, volume, and pitch of your voice, known as vocal variety, can help keep your audience engaged, as can gestures and movement. Conversely, nonverbal adaptors, or nervous movements we do to relieve anxiety like pacing or twirling our hair, can be distracting.
Aside from minimizing distractions and delivering our messages enthusiastically, the content of our communication also affects salience. Needs and Interests We tend to pay attention to information that we perceive to meet our needs or interests in some way.The philosophy of self defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others.
Contemporary discussions on the nature of the self are not thereby discussions on the nature of personhood, or personal identity.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers’ Attributions, Expectations, that probes teachers’ ideas regarding issues of race, class, gender, and discrimination in the Stigma, Stereotypes, and Attributional Theory Combining theories of stigma and stereotyping with attribution theory may provide.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Sociology: A Look at the Theory of Robert Merton Not only is the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy an important one in psychological research, it is also a well-known phenomenon in the field of sociology, where it was first discovered and defined by sociologist Robert Merton.
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(leads to self-fulfilling prophecy) How does the Freudian idea of displacement of aggression relate to stereotyping and prejudice? In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to .