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Define consciousness and distinguish between high and low conscious states Explain the relationship between consciousness and bias Understand the difference between popular portrayals of hypnosis and how it is currently used therapeutically Introduction Have you ever had a fellow motorist stopped beside you at a red light, singing his brains out, or picking his nose, or otherwise behaving in ways he might not normally do in public?
There is something about being alone in a car that encourages people to zone out and forget that others can see them. Although these little lapses of attention are amusing for the rest of us, they are also instructive when it comes to the topic of consciousness.
This guy is singing his heart out in his one-man mobile music studio. Have you ever done this? It includes awareness of the self, of bodily sensations, of thoughts and of the environment.
Upon reflection, it is easy to see how slippery a topic consciousness is. In this module, we will describe several levels of consciousness and then discuss altered states of consciousness such as hypnosis and sleep. At its heart, this issue pits various levels of awareness against one another.
On the other hand, there is you—the conscious thinking, feeling you which includes all that you are currently aware of, even reading this sentence.
However, when we consider these different levels of awareness separately, we can better understand how they operate. Low Awareness You are constantly receiving and evaluating sensory information. Although each moment has too many sights, smells, and sounds for them all to be consciously considered, our brains are nonetheless processing all that information.
For example, have you ever been at a party, overwhelmed by all the people and conversation, when out of nowhere you hear your name called? So, even though you may not be aware of various stimuli in your environment, your brain is paying closer attention than you think.
Similar to a reflex like jumping when startledsome cuesor significant sensory information, will automatically elicit a response from us even though we never consciously perceive it.
The researchers flashed pictures of different objects e. However, when snake pictures were flashed, these participants started sweating more i. Although our brains perceive some stimuli without our conscious awareness, do they really affect our subsequent thoughts and behaviors?
In a landmark study, Bargh, Chen, and Burrows had participants solve a word search puzzle where the answers pertained to words about the elderly e. Afterward, the researchers secretly measured how fast the participants walked down the hallway exiting the experiment. And although none of the participants were aware of a theme to the answers, those who had solved a puzzle with elderly words vs.
For example, priming people by having them drink from a warm glass vs. In the last two decades, researchers have made advances in studying aspects of psychology that exist beyond conscious awareness.
As you can understand, it is difficult to use self-reports and surveys to ask people about motives or beliefs that they, themselves, might not even be aware of! Delays are associated with more mental effort needed to process information.
This method can help uncover non-conscious biases as well as those that we are motivated to suppress. An actual screenshot from an IAT Implicit Association Test that a person might take to test their own mental representations of various cognitive constructs.
For example, when you listen to a funny story on a date, or consider which class schedule would be preferable, or complete a complex math problem, you are engaging a state of consciousness that allows you to be highly aware of and focused on particular details in your environment.
Meditation has been practiced for centuries in religious contexts. In the past 50 years it has become increasingly popular as a secular practice. Scientific studies have linked meditation to lower stress and higher well-being.
For example, have you ever snapped at someone in frustration, only to take a moment and reflect on why you responded so aggressively?
This more effortful consideration of your thoughts could be described as an expansion of your conscious awareness as you take the time to consider the possible influences on your thoughts. Humans alternate between low and high thinking states.
That is, we shift between focused attention and a less attentive default sate, and we have neural networks for both Raichle, Although these subtle influences may affect us, we can use our higher conscious awareness to protect against external influences.
For example, you might be aware that you are influenced by mention of specific political parties.Below is an essay on "States Of Consciousness" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Normal waking conscious (NWC) is the state of conscious associated with being awake and aware of our thoughts, memories, feelings and sensations we experience from the outside world/5(1). Altered States of Consciousness Consciousness is a state of awareness. This includes a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions.
There are many different states of consciousness.
Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of the brains activity and inactivity. Essay on States of Consciousness Words | 4 Pages. States of Consciousness Numerous factors determine when and why you feel tired, full of energy, and hungry.
A person's state of consciousness and awareness varies throughout the day and depends on a person's activity, environment, and time clock.
Subsumptive unity is a matter of two or more states being subsumed within a state of consciousness (, p. ). Then, they state that there exists a total conscious state for S, if all of S’s phenomenal states at t is subsumed by a single phenomenal state.
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- States of Consciousness Numerous factors determine when and why you feel tired, full of energy, and hungry. A person's state of consciousness and awareness varies throughout the day and depends on a person's activity, environment, and time clock.