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Executive branch[ edit ] The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election.
But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament.
The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister but has important residual powers. Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex officio chair of the National Security Councilas per the National Security Act The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote.
The prime minister is Essay on indian politicians by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers.
As of earlythere were thirty-three ministerial portfolios: Legislative branch[ edit ] The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate upper house and National Assembly lower house. Senate[ edit ] The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies.
The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills.
Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills. In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting.
Unlike the National Assembly, the Senate cannot be dissolved by the President. National Assembly[ edit ] National Assembly of Pakistan Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage formerly twenty-one years of age and older but the seventeenth amendment changed it to eighteen years of age.
Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved.
Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs.
Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections.
Member 3 Now withstanding anything contained in clause 1 or clause 2the President shall appoint the most senior Judge of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five: It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court.
Of the 8 judges, 3 are required to be Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years, which may eventually be extended by the President.
If any part of the law is declared to be against Islamic law, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend such law appropriately. The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts, deciding Hudood cases.
The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary. The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. Ever since its establishment inthe Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan has been the subject of criticism and controversy in the society.
Created as an islamisation measure by the military regime and subsequently protected under the controversial 8th Amendment, its opponents question the very rationale and utility of this institution.
It is stated that this court merely duplicates the functions of the existing superior courts and also operates as a check on the sovereignty of Parliament.
The composition of the court, particularly the mode of appointment of its judges and the insecurity of their tenure, is taken exception to, and it is alleged, that this court does not fully meet the criterion prescribed for the independence of the judiciary.
That is to say, it is not immune to pressures and influences from the Executive. In the past, this court was used as a refuge for the recalcitrant judges. In 18th Amendment, judges appointments are proposed by a Parliamentary Commission.
Judges of the provincial high courts were, previously appointed The seventeenth amendment give these powers to the president, previously Prime minister exercised them by the president after consultation with the chief justice of the Supreme Court, as well as the governor of the province and the chief justice of the high court to which the appointment is being made.
High courts have original and appellate jurisdiction.Short essay on Politics and Politicians Shikha Advertisements: thanks to the "education" by the politicians themselves take politicians at their word.
Even in India, where a large number of people are illiterate, the people no longer believe in politicians' promises. John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.
A Rohingya girl at a makeshift camp in Bangladesh, after crossing over from Myanmar, September In another essay in the collection, Nyi Nyi Kyaw compares ’s campaigns to those of Hindu chauvinist organizations in India like the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the alphabetnyc.com supposed fertility of Muslim men and their practice of polygamy are seen as threats to the future of Buddhists in.
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In India, reform movements before and after independence has helped women to gain some power in politics also. After independence they have achieved an unprecedented political breakthrough with the reservation of seats for them in panchayats and other public bodies. Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. Here is your essay on Political Corruption in India: It is well-known that a large number of politicians, not only in India, but almost in all countries are corrupt. People are never shocked when politician’s corruption is divulged. Honest politicians are a rare breed today. Ministers like Lal.
SPECIAL NOTICE. On April 18, Astrud Gilberto Wrote to Fans And To Animal Lovers. Here is your essay on Political Corruption in India: It is well-known that a large number of politicians, not only in India, but almost in all countries are corrupt. People are never shocked when politician’s corruption is divulged.
Honest politicians are a rare breed today.
|Politics of Pakistan - Wikipedia||There is a wave of unrest among the students of today. Not a single day passes without the news of a strike in some college or some university.|
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|Essay on The Role of Women in Politics||It is well-known that a large number of politicians, not only in India, but almost in all countries are corrupt.|
Ministers like Lal. Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.