Related Questions in Marketing Management - Others Your task is to collect a total of 6 different examples relating to specific topics that illustrate Solved October 04, to the marketing of a products or services.
Market Intelligence Each of these functions add value to the product and they require inputs, so they incur costs. As long as the value added to the product is positive, most firms or entrepreneurs will find it profitable to compete to supply the service.
The marketing concept holds that the needs of the customer are of paramount importance. A producer can be said to have adopted a market orientation when production is purposely planned to meet specific demands or market opportunities.
Thus a contract farmer who wishes to meet the needs of a food processor manufacturing sorghum-based malted drinks will only purchase improved sorghum seed.
Improving quality inevitably increases the associated costs. In some cases the market is insensitive to improvements in quality, beyond some threshold level, does not earn a premium price.
The most successful agribusiness is the one which yields the largest difference between prices obtained and costs incurred.
Of the nine functions listed, this is probably the one which people find least difficulty in associating with marketing. Indeed to many the terms marketing and selling are synonymous.
Their immediate aim is to sell what they can make rather than to make what they can sell. This is not marketing. Enterprises adopt the marketing philosophy as a result of becoming aware that their own long term objectives can only be realised by consistently providing customer satisfaction.
Whereas selling might create a consumer, marketing is about creating a customer. The difference is that marketing is about establishing and maintaining long term relationships with customers. Selling is part of marketing in the same way that promotion, advertising and merchandising are components, or sub-components of the marketing mix.
These all directed towards persuasion and are collectively known as marketing communications; one of the four elements of the marketing mix.
An inherent characteristic of agricultural production is that it is seasonal whilst demand is generally continous throughout the year. Hence the need for storage to allow a smooth, and as far as possible, uninterrupted flow of product into the market. Because he is dealing with a biological product the grower does not enjoy the same flexibility as his manufacturing counterpart in being able to adjust the timing of supply to match demand.
It would be an exaggeration to suggest that a manufacturer can turn production on and off to meet demand - they too have their constraints- but they have more alternatives than does the agricultural producer.
A manufacturer can, for example, work overtime, sub-contract work, and over a longer time horizon, the manufacturer can increase or decrease productive capacity to match the strength of demand. In agriculture, and especially in LDCs, supply often exceeds demand in the immediate post-harvest period.
The glut reduces producer prices and wastage rates can be extremely high. For much of the reminder of the period before the next harvest, the product can be in short supply with traders and consumers having to pay premium prices to secure whatever scarce supplies are to be had.
The storage function is one of balancing supply and demand. Both growers and consumers gain from a marketing system that can make produce available when it is needed.
A farmer, merchant, co-operative, marketing board or retailer who stores a product provides a service. That service costs money and there are risks in the form of wastage and slumps in market demand, prices, so the provider of storage is entitled to a reward in the form of profit.
The transport function is chiefly one of making the product available where it is needed, without adding unreasonably to the overall cost of the produce.
Adequate performance of this function requires consideration of alternative routes and types of transportation, with a view to achieving timeliness, maintaining produce quality and minimising shipping costs. Effective transport management is critical to efficient marketing.
Whether operating a single vehicle or a fleet of vehicles, transportation has to be carefully managed, including cost monitoring - operations on different road types, fuel and lubrication consumption and scheduled and remedial maintenance and repair.
Skillful management of all aspects of vehicle operations can also make a substantial contribution to efficient marketing especially with respect to optimum routing, scheduling and loading and off-loading; maximisation of shift hours available, maintaining the vehicle fleet at an optimum size, taking account of time constraints on delivery, and collection times and judicious management of vehicle replacement and depreciation.
Transport managers also have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of owning, hiring or leasing transport. Most agricultural produce is not in a form suitable for direct delivery to the consumer when it is first harvested. Rather it needs to be changed in some way before it can be used.
Kohls and Uhl6 observe that: The form changing activity is one of that adds value to the product. Changing green coffee beans into roasted beans, cassava into gari or livestock feed, full fruit bunches into palm oil or sugarcane into gur increases the value of the product because the converted product has greater utility to the buyer.
How the form of produce is to be changed and the method to be used in bringing about such changes are marketing decisions.
For example, some years ago when Ethiopia was looking to expand its tea business, a prototype manufacturing plant was established. The plant was capable of curing the tea and packing it in individual tea bags.
At that point, tests were undertaken in which the product was compared with others already on the market. The results were encouraging.NGARUIYA4 Mary Ngaruiya John Zamparelli English comp Problem solution essay Final Draft. GANG VIOLENCE IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS There are approximately 27, gangs, with , members, impacting towns, cities, and communities across the United States.
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